Refrence: Rawson, R.A. et. al (2007). The matrix model: intensive outpatient alcohol and drug treatment: a 16-week individualized program: therapist manual. Hazeldene: Minnesota.
Substances can be divided into 3 main categories:
There are, however, those substances that do not fit neatly into either of these categories. These include cannabis, mandrax, and ecstasy, which will be grouped under the category 'other' as these often display signs and symptoms associated with all three of the above categories.
Substances can be further categorized into several groups:
Stimulants are also referred to as "uppers, elevates the central nervous system, cognition and physical performance. These substances tend to temporarily increase the user's level alertness, energy, attention, heart-rate, respiration and blood pressure.
Depressants, also referred to as "downers", directly contrasts stimulants by slowing down central nervous system activity. Users tend to experience a state of lethargy, slowed heart-rate, and brain activity. These substances are often found in medications used to treat mental illness, alleviate pain, and treat other disorders such as anxiety and insomnia.
Hallucinogens are substances associated with hallucinations and distortions in one's perception of reality, thoughts and feelings - the user may see images, hear sounds, feel or experience sensations that feel real to the user though they do not exist. People have also reported experiencing a disconnection from their body or the environment and a loss of control.
These are substances that do not clearly fit into any of the before mentioned categories as many of the effects the user experiences overlaps with those of stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens.
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