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Referencing: Harvard

Comprehensive guide to the Harvard Referencing Style

Conference papers

Conference papers should be referenced in a similar way to journal articles. List the titles of papers in single quotation marks and sentence case, followed by the name of the conference proceedings in italics and title case. For proceedings accessed online, include the doi or accessed date Day Month Year and URL, or the database.

Rule: Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Conference Proceedings, volume(issue):page–page, doi:number


Mohamed, S. (2019) ‘A Critical Praxis in the Information Literacy Education Classroom: Using the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education’, in Information Literacy in Everyday Life. [Online]. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 506–521.

Khomokhoana, P. J. & Nel, L. (2019) ‘Decoding Source Code Comprehension: Bottlenecks Experienced by Senior Computer Science Students’, in ICT Education. [Online]. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 17–32.

García-Macías, V. et al. (2018) ‘Endohaptic: virtual system for endodontic training using haptic devices’, in Proceedings of the 7th Mexican Conference on human-computer interaction. ACM. pp. 1–4.,


Jantjies, M. et al. (2018) ‘Experiential learning through Virtual and Augmented Reality in Higher Education’, in Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on education technology management. [Online]. 2018 ACM. pp. 42–45.


Theses and Dissertation

University theses can be sourced in hardcopy or online via repositories. Present the title of the thesis (also called a dissertation in some countries) in italics and sentence case. Describe the type of thesis, i.e. PhD or masters, and the university that awarded the degree (including its location) following the title. Reference the accessed date and URL or database or publisher.

Rule: Author A (Year) Title of thesis: subtitle of thesis [type of thesis], Name of University, accessed date Day Month Year, URL or database.


Walters, J. (2020). Diagnostic accuracy of maxillary periapical pathology perforating the sinus floor: a comparison of pantomograph and CBCT images . Thesis. University of the Western Cape. Retrieved from 2020.

Mkhize, M. (2014) A retrospective assessment of the upper LIP response following upper INCISOR retraction. Thesis (M.A.)--University of the Western Cape, 2014.

Ngema, M. N. (2012) A cephalometric comparison of class II extraction cases treated with tip-edge and edgewise techniques. Thesis (M.Ch.D.)--University of the Western Cape, 2012.




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