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Referencing: Harvard

Comprehensive guide to the Harvard Referencing Style

Videos and Audio material

You need to reference any information or ideas that you use from these sources, and if you reproduce any of these sources in your work (for example, if you use part of a video in your work). You may reference the whole or part of the media, i.e. a TV series or an episode, a song or the album, etc. Enclose the part in single quotation marks; list the whole in italics.


Use sentence case for film titles. Write the title as it appears in the film information. Include the year of production in the in-text citation and in the reference list. Include the place of production if it is known (e.g. South Africa, Angola, UK). Use the director's name if it is included, otherwise use the name of the producer. Include the words [motion picture] in square brackets after the title.

Rule: Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [motion picture], Name of Studio or Publisher, Place of Production

Example: Darrell JR  (director) (1992) Sarafina  [motion picture], Distant Horizon Films , Johannesburg

Example:  Attenborough RS (producer) (1987) Cry Freedom  [motion picture],  Marble Arch Productions, London, UK

Note: If you watch a film online, include an accessed date and a URL or name of streaming service.

Example: Loach J (director) (2010) Oranges and Sunshine [television movie], Nineaccessed 23 February 2021. 

Episodes of a TV series

Use quotation marks for episodes of a tv program, and use sentence case for the title. Include the year of production in parentheses in both the in-text citations and the reference list. Use the name of the director if known, otherwise use the name of the producer. Use the words [television program] after the title in square brackets. If the episode has a name, use it, otherwise use the name of the program and the episode and season number.

Rule: Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [television program], Name of series (season number, episode number), Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.

Example: Mkhize, S (director) (2007) ‘Rhythm City’ [television program], TV Series (season 13 , episode 3305 as of March 2020),, South Africa.

Note: If you viewed the tv program on a streaming service (e.g. Netflix, Kanopy), include the name of the streaming service at the end of the reference.

Example: Mogashoa, L ( Director) (2022) Savage Beauty  (episode 1-6)  [television drama]  , South Africa, Netflix.


Youtube/online Videos

Use the name of the author when possible. Sometimes the author is a channel rather than an individual, if so, include information about the presenter in your text (near the in-text citation) if needed.  Use sentence case for the title. Include the words [online video] in square brackets after the title, and include the accessed date and the URL. Use the full date details in the reference list, and use the year in the in-text citation.

Rule: Author A (DD Mon YYYY) Title of video: subtitle of video [online video], accessed date. URL

Example: TED (21 Jan 2021) Using your voice is a political choice [online video], accessed 29 January 2021.  

Radio programs

Rule: Presenter P (presenter) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [radio program], Name of program, Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production

Example: Ranaka D (presenter) (2 February 2022) The Bridge  [radio program], Metro FM, Johannesburg.


If both the host and presenter are known, and they are different people, include both names.  Otherwise, just include the host.

Rule: Host H (host) and Producer P (producer) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of podcast: subtitle of podcast’ [podcast], Name of podcast, Name of Podcast Network, accessed Day Month Year. URL

Example: Hooper C (host) and Arnall K (producer) (3 November 2019) 'Goodbye secret garage shame' [podcast], The pineapple project, ABC, accessed 4 February 2020.




Write the name of the song, the author, and the year of publication in parentheses when you cite lyrics in a text. If you mention the name of the song in the text, place only the author and the year in parentheses. If you mention the author in-text, put the date in parentheses straight after the author’s name. Use single quotation marks and sentence case for the name of the song. Include the medium (e.g. song, album) in square brackets after the title.

Rule: Creator C (Year) ‘Title of song: subtitle of song’ [Medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher

Example: Tones and I (2019) ‘Dance monkey’ [Song], The kids are coming, Sony Music Australia


Rule: Creator C (Year) Title of long work or compilation [Medium], Name of Publisher

Example: Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca



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