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Referencing Styles Guide @ UWC: Electronic sources

On this page

Quick links for citing in Harvard

Emails, blogs

Reference list: In-Text: 
Emails and discussion lists

Before quoting these sources, permission should be sought from the owner. 

Basic structure:

Name of the sender. and email address. Year. Message or subject of the email in italics. [medium in square brackets]. Recipient's name and (email address in round brackets). Date including the time when the message was sent. Available at: URL where the message is archived. [Date when the message was accessed in square brackets].

Medley, J. 2008. Pycho-social support issues for children infected with HIV/AIDS. [email]. M E. Jones ( 25 January, 8:15. [Accessed 22 March 2012].

(Medley, 2008)

Basic structure:

Author. Year. Title of the individual blog entry. Blog title is italic. [medium type in square brackets] and blog posting date. Available at: give web address. [Accessed date in square brackets].

De Vos, P. 2012. Unified opposition maybe not such a bright idea. Constitutional Speaking. [blog] 24 October. Available at: [Accessed 1 November 2012]

(De Vos,  2012)

YouTube videos, website publications

Reference List:  In-Text:
YouTube videos

Basic structure:

Name of the contributor. Year. Video title, Series (if available). [medium type in square brackets]. Available at: give the web address. [Accessed date in square brackets].

Kemp, R. 2009. John Mongrel (The Numbers Gang). Ross Kemp on Gangs [video online]. Available at: [Accessed 1 November 2012].

(Kemp, 2009)
Publications from websites

Basic structure:

Author or corporate author. Year. Title of document. [type of medium]. Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address. [Accessed date].

Ncongwane, P. 2011. African Scene. [online]. Available at:[(Accessed 24 October 2012].

(Ncongwane  2011.)


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