|Uppercase letter abbreviations||
Do not use fullstops or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters, except in the case of proper names:
US, MA, CD, HTML
P. D. James, J. R. R. Tolkien, E. B. White
|Lowercase letter abbreviations||
Use a fullstop of the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter, unless referring to an internet suffix, where the fullstop should come before the abbreviation:
assn., conf., Eng., esp.
.com, .edu, .gov (URL suffixes)
Note: Degree names are a notable exception to the lowercase abbreviation rule.
PhD, EdD, PsyD
Use fullstops between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations:
a.m., e.g., i.e.
Other notable exceptions:
mph, os, rpm, ns
Abbreviate all months -- except for May, June, and July -- in lists of Works Cited:
Jan.; Feb.; Mar.; Apr.; Aug.; Sept.; Oct.; Nov.; Dec.
Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher's city is not well known or could be confused with another city. Abbreviate country, province, and state names.
Logan, UT; Manchester, Eng.; Sherbrooke, QC
Shorten publisher's names as much as possible in book citations. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names.
MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers:
Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use.
University of the Western Cape,
Robert Sobukwe Road,
Tel: 021 959 2946