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Information Literacy Tutorial

A module-based information literacy tutorial that addresses each stage of the research process, including selecting a topic, identifying information needs, selecting sources, locating information, evaluating information, and citing sources.

What is Referencing?

 What is referencing?


We are not all inventors. Most of our thoughts or ideas are shaped by others.  When one does research you investigate the work of other researchers in depth in order to know the literature in a field. Only then can one add your own contribution to the subject area. 

Your lecturers will expect to see how you have used and applied material in your assignment. You have to acknowledge the authors of the works you have used. This is called "Referencing". Providing references for sources you used also lends credibility to your work, especially if you use authoritative sources.

 Full References

Be sure to provide references to all types of sources you use, including:

  • Books
  • Articles
  • Internet sites
  • Interviews
  • Government documents
  • Nonprint media (DVDs, videotapes)
  • Database sources

Citing Sources

Jewell, C. & Romane, L. (2009). "Crediting others' ideas".  Academic Integrity Tutorial.   Illus. Sara LeBlanc. University of Waterloo (permission granted by authors).

Elements of a Reference

A reference must include the following elements:


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